Civics 7

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The statement below was written by John Adams in April 1776. 'A representation of the people in one assembly being obtained, a question arises, whether all the powers of government, legislative, executive, and judicial, shall be left in this body? Class VII Chapter 7 Civics, study notes and study material to learn and revise your chapter. Its a fun way of learning using assessments.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation (अध्याय 7: हाशियाकरण की समझ) (Unit 4 of Social and Political Life – III ) in PDF form to free download or Study online for new session 2020-21.

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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 7

Class:8
Subject:Social Science – Civics
Chapter 7:Understanding Marginalisation

CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation in PDF form for session 2020-21. Download NCERT solutions Offline apps 2020-21 for offline use or use as it is without downloading online.

What does it mean to be Socially Marginalised?

To be marginalised is to be forced to occupy the sides or fringes and thus not be at the centre of things. Sometimes, marginalised groups are viewed with hostility and fear. This sense of difference and exclusion leads to communities not having access to resources and opportunities and in their inability to assert their rights. They experience a sense of disadvantage and powerlessness vis-a-vis more powerful and dominant sections of society who own land, are wealthy, better educated and politically powerful. Thus, marginalisation is seldom experienced in one sphere. Economic, social, cultural and political factors work together to make certain groups in society feel marginalised.

Who are Adivasis?

Adivasis – the term literally means ‘original inhabitants’ – are communities who lived, and often continue to live, in close association with forests. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in India. Adivasis are particularly numerous in states like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and in the north-eastern states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura. A state like Orissa is home to more than 60 different tribal groups.

How Adivasis are related with Stereotyping?

In India, we usually ‘showcase’ Adivasi communities in particular ways. Thus, during school functions or other official events or in books and movies, Adivasis are invariably portrayed in very stereotypical ways – in colourful costumes, headgear and through their dancing. Besides this, we seem to know very little about the realities of their lives. This often wrongly leads to people believing that they are exotic, primitive and backward. Often Adivasis are blamed for their lack of advancement as they are believed to be resistant to change or new ideas.

Important Notes on 8th Civics Chapter 7

Adivasi societies are also most distinctive because there is often very little hierarchy among them. Adivasis practise a range of tribal religions that are different from Islam, Hinduism and Christianity. These often involve the worship of ancestors, village and nature spirits, the last associated with and residing in various sites in the landscape – ‘mountain-spirits’, ‘river-spirits’, ‘animal-spirits’, etc. The village spirits are often worshipped at specific sacred groves within the village boundary while the ancestral ones are usually worshipped at home. Additionally, Adivasis have always been influenced by different surrounding religions like Shakta, Buddhist, Vaishnav, Bhakti and Christianity.

Civics 7

Important Questions on 8th Civics Chapter 7

Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalisation’.
‘Marginalisation’ is a term that refers to those groups of the society which remained ignored in the past due to various social and economic causes. “Marginalisation” comes from the word “margin” meaning at the outskirts or periphery. When applied to a specific community or tribe, it implies that a particular class, caste or tribe is excluded from mainstream society.
List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.
Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalized because of the following two reasons:
They follow a different culture, language and traditions from mainstream Indian society which leads us to wrongfully classify them as exotic, primitive and backward.
They are used to a way of life close to nature and with the cutting down of forests they are being forced to migrate to urban areas where they feel out of place and not in sync with a lifestyle so vastly different from their countryside background.
Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important?
The Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important because they ensure that India’s cultural diversity is protected from becoming largely unitary and they also help to promote equality and justice to all.
Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?
The term minority is used for defining communities that are smaller in number in relation to the rest of the population. It includes issues of power, access to resources and also bears cultural and social dimensions.
You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement: ‘Muslims are a marginalised community’. Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.
Two reasons in support of the statement “Muslims are a marginalized community”: firstly, the Muslim community has not been able to gain from the country’s socio-economic development as statistics on basic amenities, literacy rate and public employment show. 63.6% Muslims live in kutcha houses as compared to only 55.2% Hindus; the literacy rate amongst Muslims was the lowest at 59% in a 2001 survey. Secondly, their customs are distinct from other religious communities, so much so that they are identified as separate from the “rest of us” leading to unfair treatment and discrimination against Muslims.
Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, “Look at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time”. List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.
The three things I would tell a friend about the Adivasis in India would be:
‘Adivasis’ is a term literally means ‘orignal inhabitants’. They lived and often continue to live in close association with forests.
Adivasis are not a homogenous population. There are over 500 different Adivasis groups in India.
The Adivasis have their own languages which have influenced “mainstream” languages like Bengali and Santhali, commonly spoken in urban areas.
In the storyboard you read about how Helen hopes to make a movie on the Adivasi story. Can you help her by developing a short story on Adivasis?
Here a story has been given below for an example: An Adivasi group lived in a village. They lived there peacefully and used to fulfil their needs from the land and the forests around them. One day a few strangers reached their village along with a government document and announced that the land where Adivasis were living belonged to Mr. Sharma (an industrialist). So they will have to vacate the village because Mr. Sharma wanted to establish an industry over there. When Adivasis did not agree to leave their land, they were humiliated and tortured Mr. Sharma finally decided to visit the- village personally and tried to settle the deal by offering some money to them. While coming to the village with his son, his car met with an accident in which he was badly injured and his son fell into the valley, but was saved.When Mr. Sharma opened his eyes, he saw himself surrounded by some villagers. He came to know that they saved the life of his son with the help of medicinal herbs available in forests. Mr. Sharma learnt that those people belonged to the same Adivasi group whom he wanted to abandon from their land.Finally, Mr. Sharma begged apology from the Adivasis and withdrew his idea of locating an industry in the village. He realized that it would not be justified to ruins the life of those who saved his son’s life.
Would you agree with the statement that economic marginalisation and social marginalisation are interlinked? Why?
Yes, economic marginalization and social marginalization are inter-linked. Marginalisation implies having a low social status and a consequent lack of access to education and other resources. Social marginalization, as seen in the case of the Muslim community, is based on how their traditions, culture and dressing make us identify Muslims as different from us. This sometimes leads to unfair inequity on the basis of religious differences. As a result, minority groups may find it difficult to rent houses, procure jobs or even send their children to schools. This is economic marginalization. Thus, the two are inter-connected.

Understanding Advertising: NCERT 7th CBSE Social Studies Civics Chapter 07

Civics 7

Question: What do you understand by the word brand? List two reasons why building brands is central to advertising?

Answer: By ‘brand’ we mean that a particular product is marked with a name and logo which differentiate it from other products in the market. Building a brand is central to advertising so that buyers don’t get confused among the various products in the market. But just naming the product is not enough; the buyers have to be convinced that a particular brand is better than others.

Question: Choose two of your favorite print advertisements. Now, look at each of these and answer the following questions:

  1. What visuals and test is being used in these advertisements to attract my attention?
  2. What values are being promoted in these advertisements?
  3. Who is this advertisement speaking to and who is it leaving out?
  4. If you could not afford the brand that is being advertised how would you feel?

Understanding Advertising – Answer: Attempt this question on your own.

Question: Can you explain two ways in which you think advertising affects issues of equality in a democracy?

Answer: Advertising focuses on the lives of the rich and famous and makes us forget issues of poverty and discrimination. It makes us take decisions by conditioning our minds and has a potential to create discontent if a certain product is not affordable.

Question: Making an advertisement requires a lot of creativity. Let us imagine a situation in which a manufacturer has just made a new watch. She says that she wants to sell this watch to school children. She comes to your class and asks you all to create a brand name as well as an advertisement for the watch. Divide the class into small groups and each group create an advertisement for this watch. Share it with the class.

Answer: Once your group is decided, start working on the name of the brand. More often than not, the name of a brand plays an important role in building its reputation. Once that is done, you can make teams of two within your group and start thinking about the advertisement. While you are doing this, make sure that you know what you want the advertisement to focus on. After all, your advertisement should be good enough to connect with the consumers, which in this case, are school children. Your being a student will be of tremendous help as you would know the kind of watch you would want for yourself. Once all teams in your group have come up with some thoughts, come together as a group and consolidate on the best idea and discuss it with your teacher and the other groups.

Question: What do advertisements do?

Understanding Advertising – Answer: They attract people’s attention to their products.

Question: What do you mean by the word branding?

Answer: The naming of a product is called branding.

Question: Why is the consumer confused? Or What makes the consumer confused?

Answer: Sometimes there are two or more advertisements of a similar product. This makes the consumer confused because it becomes difficult for him to differentiate one product from the other / others.

Question: What do the advertisers do to convince the consumer?

Answer: They start claiming certain special values for their brand.

Question: How are brand values conveyed to us?

Answer: Brand values are conveyed to us through the use of visuals and words.

Question: When products are advertised by cricket heroes and film stars, we feel tempted to buy them. Why?

Civics 7th Grade Notes

Answer: It is because persons whom we consider our heroes tell us that those products are worth buying.

Question: ‘Advertisements aim to get people to buy a particular brand’. What does this really mean?

Answer: It means that after we see an advertisement we should want to buy the brand.

Question: Why do companies show the advertisements again and again?

Understanding Advertising – Answer: They do so in order to get it stick in people’s minds.

Question: Under what pressure do companies show the advertisements again and again?

Answer: There are so many advertisements in the market. This creates a pressure on the companies and they start showing the advertisements again and again to make it most popular.

Civics 7

Question: What do you mean by social advertisements?

Answer: Social advertisements are advertisements made by the State or private agencies. These advertisements have a larger message for the society.

Question: What impressions does advertising create on us?

Answer: It creates the impressions that things that are packaged are better than things that are sold loose.

Question: Mention one drawback of advertising.

Answer: It tends to promote a certain lack of respect for the poor.

Question: How do people feel when they fail to afford certain brands?

Understanding Advertising – Answer: They feel bad on their helplessness to buy certain brands.

Question: Why do you think the manufacturer of the daal (pulses) gave his product a specific name?

Answer:Daals (pulses) are usually sold loose in the market. There are different types of daals in the market such as arahar ki daal, masoor ki daal, urad ki daal etc. These names are not brand names. When a company takes a particular daal such as urad ki daal and puts it into a packet, it will need to give the daal a specific name. It needs to do this so that we don’t confuse the daal is that particular packet with the daal that is sold loose.

Question: What do companies do in case there are two brands of a similar product?

Answer: In such a situation the consumer is confused. He cannot decide which product he should buy. The manufacturer, being aware of this has to give the consumer a reason to refer a particular brand of a product. Just naming a product does not help sell it. So, advertisers began claiming certain special values for their brand. In this way, they try to differentiate it from other similar products.

Question: What brand values are used by the two daals namely ‘Top Taste Daal’ and ‘Best Taste Daal’?

Answer: The two daals namely ‘Top Taste Daal‘ and ‘Best Taste Daal‘ are saying two different things. ‘Top Taste Daal‘ is appealing to our social tradition of treating guest extremely well. On the other hand ‘Best Taste Daal‘ is appealing to our concern for our children’s health and that they eat things that are good for them. Values such as treating our guests well and making sure and children get nutritious food are used by brands to create brand values. These brand values are conveyed through the use of visuals and words to give us an overall image that appeals to us.

Question: How is personal emotion being used in the Care Soap advertisement?

Answer: The Care Soap advertisement uses the mother’s concern for her child. It tells the mother that her love and care is best shown through using this particular brand of soap. Because of this, mothers begin to feel that using this soap is a sign of how much they love their child. In this way, the advertisement uses the love of a mother for her child to sell this expensive soap.

Just think about those mothers who cannot afford this soap. They might begin to feel that they are not giving their children the best care.

Understanding Advertising – Question: What role do advertisements play in our lives?

Answer: Advertisements play a major role in our lives. They influence us to a great extent. We watch advertisements, discuss them and often judge people according to the brand products they use. Whenever we see cricket heroes and film stars advertising different products we feel tempted to buy those products. It is because persons whom we consider our heroes tell us that they are worth buying. Advertisements tell us how we should live our lives, what we should aspire and dream for, how we should express our love, what it means to be smart, successful and beautiful. Thus, advertisements have significant role in our lives. In the present scenario, we cannot think of a life without advertisements.

Question: How are small businessmen affected in this age of advertisements?

Answer: Advertising a product is a costly affair no doubt but this is the only way to sell products in the market. Large companies have no dearth to money and therefore they can easily advertise their products. But these are small businessmen also who have no money to show their products on television or national newspapers and magazines. They often have to sell their products in weekly markets and neighborhood shops.

Advertising also makes us believe that packaged and branded things are better than things sold loose. We often forget that the quality of a product has little to do with packaging that it comes in. This shift to packaged products negatively affects the sales of several small business forcing people out of their livelihoods.

Understanding Advertising – Question: Mention the drawbacks of advertising.

Answer: Advertising shows certain drawbacks which are as follow:

  1. We are citizens of a democratic country. It means we all are equal. But advertising always focuses on the lives of the rich and influential persons. It tends to promote a certain lack of respect for the poor. They are not the faces we most often see in advertisements and therefore we cease to think about them.
  2. Advertising uses personal emotions of the people. Those who are capable to buy certain brands feel exalted but there are many who cannot afford to buy them. The personal emotions of these people are hurt badly.
  3. Advertising promotes the sale of packaged products. This negatively affects the sale of things which do not come in packets. This forces many people out of their livelihoods.
  4. Advertising by focusing on the lives of the rich and famous helps us forget about issues of poverty, discrimination and dignity, all of which are central to the functioning of equality in a democracy.